Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
- Use superscript numbers to cite material, e.g., 1
- The superscript number is inserted into the document immediately next to the fact, concept, or quotation being cited.
- If a reference is used many times in one paper, use the same number throughout.
- Number references consecutively with arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text.
- If the citation extends to a second line, do NOT indent (this is different from MLA and APA).
- Journal titles are abbreviated and in italics.
- Use PubMed abbreviations for journal titles. See Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases.
- If no PubMed journal abbreviation exists, use standard abbreviations in the AMA Manual of Style to construct an abbreviated title.
- Single word titles, such as Pediatrics, are not abbreviated.
- In journal titles, capitalize all major words (Do not capitalize the, an, a, in, for, or but, unless this word begins the title.)
- Title of journal article: capitalize only the first word.
- Journal page numbers and dates: Format is the year followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses) followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, the final page number followed by a period and are set without spaces.
Hunter RH, Sykes K, Lowman SG, Duncan R, Satariano WA, Belza B. Environmental and policy change to support healthy aging. J Aging Soc Policy. 2011;23(4):354-371. doi:10.1080/08959420.2011.605642
- Citing online journals: The DOI number is preferred over the URL link.
- In Book Titles, capitalize all major words (Do not capitalize the, an, a, in, for, or but, unless this word begins the title.) and put in italics.
- In Book Chapter Titles: capitalize only the first word.
When to Cite
You need to cite when:
- using a direct quotation, even if it is in quotation marks
- using facts that are not common knowledge (what the reader can reasonably be expected to know)
- paraphrasing or rewriting the author’s ideas
- summarizing the data or argument of an author
- using the key words or phrases from the author or using synonyms
- mentioning the author’s name in your text
- writing a sentence that mostly consists of your own thoughts, but you have made a reference to another author’s ideas
When in doubt, err on the side of caution, and cite.
Citing Online materials
When citing electronic material, in addition to the basic information included as with print references, you must also, in general, include the URL (link) to the item as well as the date you accessed it. Two tips to keep in mind: provide the most direct url possible and if a DOI is listed instead of a URL, it is not necessary to include the date accessed. DOI is preferred over URL.
Please note: Some browsers may show italicized text as underlined. When preparing bibliographies based on any of the formats addressed by this series, italics are specified, and should be used. If you don't see an example for your type of reference, consult the manual itself.
Type of Entry
|Online journals with volume and page information
||Kapur VK, Obstructive sleep apnea: diagnosis, epidemiology, and economics. Respir Care. 2010;55(9):1155-1167. http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/09.10/09.10.1155.pdf Accessed November 8, 2011.
|Online journals without volume and page information *
||Mast CT, DeMuro-Mercon C, Kelly CM, Floyd LE, Ealter EB. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family. BMC Pediatrics. 2009;9:11. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-11
||King MW. The Medical Biochemistry Page. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org. Updated July 14, 2009. Accessed July 14, 2009.
||Neinstein, L, ed. Adolescent Health Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott W&W; 2008. http://www.r2library.com/marc_frame.aspx?ResourceID=931. Accessed November 9, 2011.
|Chapter from an online book
||Creating safety systems in health care organizations. In: Kohn, LT, Corrigan, JM, and Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine; 2000. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ptp?record_id=9728&page=155. Accessed November 1, 2011.
||Amoxicillin. In:DRUGDEX System (Micromedex 2.0). Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; c1974-2013. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/librarian#. Accessed October 22, 2013.
*When a DOI is provided it is preferable to supply it and no accessed date is needed.